Refractive errors

Normal condition of the eye

For a healthy eye, light beams cross the cornea without obstacles, whose curvature is one of the most important causes of vision problems.

Near- and farsightedness, astigmatism and presbyopia belong to the most frequent eye disorders.

Near-sightedness (myopia)

Near-sightedness is a very common refractive error, frequently hereditary. Persons with near-sightedness can see very well at a near distance but sense far objects blurred. In daily life, for example, timely and correct recognition of distances or traffic signs when driving may present a severe problem. Near-sighted individuals must not forget their glasses when going to theatre, cinema or to a sports event, as without their eyewear they only see blurred patches for them.

Near-sightedness may be caused by increased (too convex) corneal curvature or too long eyeball. Thereby, the focus of the eye gets in front of the retina, projecting a blurred picture onto the retina.


Farsightedness (hypermetropia)

Farsightedness is a less common refractive error. People with farsightedness see blurred both at near and far distance. Prolonged reading, safe driving, using a computer, or even recognising text messages on the mobile phone may pose a difficulty. Forced concentration may frequently cause headache which can ruin even the loveliest programme. At young age, farsightedness may remain hidden because of the eye’s accommodation ability.

Farsightedness may be caused by too little curvature and too flat surface of the cornea or too short eyeball. Thereby, the light beams will focus behind the retina.


Astigmatism is a very common eye condition. The shape of the cornea resembles a rugby ball which has too main curvatures (one is more curved, the other one is flatter).

Thereby, the light beams will not focus in one point on the retina and do not result in a sharp picture.

Aging eyes (presbyopia)

It is a fact that the eye’s accommodative ability will significantly decrease over the age of 40. This is called presbyopia. The lens will lose its flexibility and cannot change its shape when looking at near or far objects. Therefore, additional glasses with different dioptres are required for near and far distances. We are annoyed in the supermarket because we don’t see the script on the labels and always have to look for the right glasses in the bag.

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This project is funded by the European Union and the Hungarian Government. (GINOP1.3.2-15-2018-00039)