What is age-related
macular degeneration?

Treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease affecting visual acuity. The macula, or better known as the yellow spot, is one of the most valuable areas of the fundus of the eye. Its main function is to ensure sight and the ability to read. Macular degeneration is the gradual destruction of the cells of the retina. The risk of developing the disease is higher in older people, and it is a leading cause of vision loss in people aged 50 and over.

Types of age relatedmacular degeneration

There are two types of this extremely unpleasant disease, dry macular degeneration and wet macular degeneration.


In the dry form of macular degeneration, the cells and certain parts on the yellow spot
are atrophied. The patient then experiences a slow, gradual loss of vision.
It causes 5-15% of blindness.


The wet type of lesion is caused by abnormal vascular growth which starts from the choroid under the retinal membrane. At the beginning of the process, the blood vessels invade the retina and cover the macula, but later the blood vessels begin to bleed, causing scarring of the area and complete loss of central vision. There is a gradual deterioration of vision at the beginning of the disease, but after the haemorrhage there is a sudden worsening of symptoms, which can lead to rapid loss of vision.

Who might be at higher risk?

You are more likely to develop macular degeneration if you:

  • eat a diet high in saturated fat (found in foods such as meat, butter and cheese)
  • are overweight
  • smoke cigarettes
  • are over 50 years old
  • have high blood pressure
  • have high cholesterol
  • have a family history of age-related macular degeneration
  • have heart disease

What are the symptoms of macular degeneration?

  • gradual or sudden deterioration of vision
  • difficulty reading, often discovered when the reading glasses are replaced
  • letters are “missing” in the text you read
  • dark area appears in the central part of the vision, often detected by accidentally blocking the other eye
  • the straight lines become distorted, curved
  • the colours are duller

Early detection and diagnosis can help
protect your vision and preserve your quality of life.


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